# cogency

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**Averroes**— Ibn Rušd (ابن رشد) Averroes Statue of Averroes in Cordoba Full name ʾAbū l Walīd Muḥammad ibn ʾAḥmad ibn Rušd …82

**Syllogism**— A syllogism (Greek: συλλογισμός – syllogismos – conclusion, inference ) is a kind of logical argument in which one proposition (the conclusion) is inferred from two or more others (the premises) of a certain form. In antiquity, there were… …83

**Philosophical analysis**— (from Greek: Φιλοσοφική ανάλυση) is a general term for techniques typically used by philosophers in the analytic tradition that involve breaking down (i.e. analyzing) philosophical issues. Arguably the most prominent of these techniques is the… …84

**Reference**— For help in citing references, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. For the Wikipedia Reference Desk, see Wikipedia:Reference desk. Reference is derived from Middle English referren, from Middle French rèférer, from Latin referre, to carry back , formed …85

**Alonzo Church**— This article is about the mathematician and logician. For the president of the University of Georgia, see Alonzo S. Church. Alonzo Church Alonzo Church (1903–1995) …86

**Natural deduction**— In logic and proof theory, natural deduction is a kind of proof calculus in which logical reasoning is expressed by inference rules closely related to the natural way of reasoning. This contrasts with the axiomatic systems which instead use… …87

**Fallacy**— In logic and rhetoric, a fallacy is usually incorrect argumentation in reasoning resulting in a misconception or presumption. By accident or design, fallacies may exploit emotional triggers in the listener or interlocutor (appeal to emotion), or… …88

**Classical logic**— identifies a class of formal logics that have been most intensively studied and most widely used. The class is sometimes called standard logic as well.[1][2] They are characterised by a number of properties:[3] Law of the excluded middle and… …89

**Completeness**— In general, an object is complete if nothing needs to be added to it. This notion is made more specific in various fields. Contents 1 Logical completeness 2 Mathematical completeness 3 Computing 4 …90

**Fact**— For other uses, see Fact (disambiguation). A fact (derived from the Latin Factum, see below) is something that has really occurred or is actually the case. The usual test for a statement of fact is verifiability, that is whether it can be shown… …